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English course P. II

HOW (Comment) ?

 

1.  How   (comment)

         Hello Marcel!  How are you? Salut Marcel, comment vas-tu?

                       I am fine, thanks. Je vais bien, merci.

      How do you do? Comment allez-vous (Comment vas-tu?) (enchanté)

                           ( formel , la réponse est 'how do you do?' ) 

         How can I help you?  Comment puis-je t'aider (Comment puis-je vous aider?)

            I am Mr. YEMBELE...  How do you spell it, please?  (Comment l'écrivez-vous?)

2.  How old  (âge)

                           How old are you? Quel âge as tu?  (verbe être en anglais)

3.  How tall  (taille)

    How tall is your sister? Combien mesure ta soeur?

  4. How much (suivi du singulier)

                     How much salt do you take when you eat green mangoes? (quantité)

   How much is that book in the window? (prix)

                                 Combien pour ce livre dans la vitrine ? (combien coûte ce livre...)

5. How many (suivi du pluriel)

How many chairs have you got in your sitting room?

                                Combien de chaises avez-vous dans votre salon?  (nombre)

6. How long  (longueur)

          How long is your grandmother’s stick? Quelle est la longueur du bâton de votre grand-mère?

                       

 How long will we have to wait for the doctor? (temps,durée)

                              Combien de temps nous faudra-t-il attendre le docteur ?

7.  How far  (distance)

    How far is the Congolese city Brazzaville from Pointe-Noire?   A quelle distance sépare Brazzaville de Pointe-Noire?

8.  How fast  (vitesse)

   How fast is that red BMW?     A quelle vitesse va cette BMW?

9.  How deep  (profondeur)

   How deep is the Congo River

                                   Quelle est la profondeur du fleuve Congo?

10.  How often (fréquence)

   How often do you brush your teeth?     

                               Tous les combiens brossez-vous vos dents ?  (brosses-tu tes dents?)

 

LIKES AND DISLIKES

 

 

A-     Likes

 

I like cakes: j’aime les cadeaux

I would like things to be in the proper place: j’aime que

I really liked the film: j’ai bien aimé…

Love going to clubs: j’ adore…

What I like best about Max are his eyes.

What I enjoy most is an evening with friends: ce que j’aime par dessus tout, c’est…

I very much enjoyed the trip to Noumbi: le vovage à Noumbi m’a beaucoup plu…

 

I have got a weakness for chocolate cakes: j’ai un faible pour…

There is nothing quite like a nice hot both:  rien de tel que….

My favourite dish is saka-saka: une de mes plats prefers…

I don’t mind being alone: cela ne me déplait pas de…..

 

B-      Dislikes

 

I don’t like cats: je déteste….

I don’t like the little bag at all : je n’aime pas du tout ce sac

I am not very keen on speaking in public : je n’aime pas …

I am not particularly keen on tales: ne m’emballe pas.

I hate medical science: je déteste …

I can’t stand being lied to: je ne supporte pas que…

If there is one thing I hate it’s eating rice: ce que je déteste….

  

 

THE ENGLISH FOR CALLS

 

 

 

Communication locale/internationale : Communication locale/internationale.

I want to make an international call : Je voudrais appeler l’étranger.

How do I get an outside line?  Comment est-ce que je peux téléphoner à l’extérieur?

What is the number for directory enquiries? Quel est le numéro des renseignements?

Can you give me the number of EP&I? Je voudrais le numéro d’EP&I ?

What is the code for…? Quel est l’indicatif du Congo?

The number you require is… : Le numéro que vous demandé est …

I am sorry, there is no listing under that name: Je regretted, mais il n’y a pas d’abonné à ce nom.

 

Could I speak to…: Je voudrais parler à…

I will call back in … : Je rappellerai dans une demi-heure.

Would you ask him to ring me when he gets back? Pourriez-vous lui demander  de me rappeler à son retour?

Who shall I say is calling? C’est de la part de qui?

I am putting you through: Je vous le passe.

I have got Accra on the line: J’ai un appel d’Accra

Hold on: Ne quittez pas.

There is no reply: Ça ne repond pas .

Would you like to leave a message? Voulez-vous laisser un message?

The number you have dialled has not been recognized: Le numéro de votre correspondent n’est plus attribué.

All lines are busy right now. Please try again later: Par suite de l’encombrement des lignes, votre appel ne peut aboutir. Veuillez rappeler ultérieurement.

Who is speaking? Qui est à l’appareil?

I must have dialled the wrong number: J’ai dû composer/faire un faux numéro.

This is a very bad line: La ligne est très mauvaise

 

  

 

AT THE RESTAURANT/FOOD

 

 

 A table for person/two people, please.

Une table pour une personne/deux personne/deux personnes, je vous prie

 

Can I look at the menu, please? Puis-je avoir le menu?

Is there a local speciality ? Y a-t-il une spécialité locale?

I am a vegetarian : Je suis végétarien.

 

I don’t eat pork : Je ne mange pas du porc.

I only eat kosher food : Je ne mange que de la viande cachère.

Breakfast : Petit-déjeuner

Lunch : déjeuner

Dinner : dîner

Supper : souper

I want a dish of….

Je voudrais un plat de

I want a dish containing…

 

Je voudrais un plat avec….

 

 

Vegetables

des légumes

 

 

Tuna

du thon

 

 

Toast

toast

 

 

Snails

des escargots

 

 

Seafood

des fruits de mer

 

 

Sausage

des saucisses

 

 

Salomon

du saumon

 

 

Salad

une salade

 

 

Rice

du riz

 

 

Pork

du porc

 

 

Oysters

des huitres

 

 

Noodles

des pâtes

 

 

Mussels

des moules

 

 

Ham

du jambon

 

 

Frogs

des grenouilles

 

 

 

 

Fish

du piosson

 

 

Eggs/one egg

des oeufs

 

 

Cod

de la morue

 

 

Cheese

du fromage

 

 

Chicken

du poulet

 

 

Beef

du beuf

 

 

Beans

des haricots

 

 

May I have a bottle of…?

Puis-je avoir une bouteille de….

 

May I have a glass of….?

Puis-je avoir un verre de…?

 

 

Beer

bière

Coffee

café

Juice

jus

Red wine

vin rouge

Sparkling water

eau gazeuse

Tea

thé

White wine

vin blanc

 

 

 

HOW TO BOOK A HOTEL ROOM

 

                              Do you have any rooms available? Avez-vous des chambres libres?

 

How much is a room for one person/two people: Combien coûte une chambre pour une personne/deux personnes?

 

Is breakfast/supper included? Le petit-déjeuner/souper est-il inclus?

 

Does the room come with a television, bathroom and a telephone?

Est-ce que dans la chambre il y a une télévision, une sale de bain et un téléphone

 

May I see the room first?

Puis-je visiter la chambre?

 

Can you suggest another hotel?

Pouvez-vous me suggérer un autre hôtel?

  

 

Do you have anything…

Vous n’avez pas de chambre….

 

quieter?

   plus tranquille

cheaper?

    moins chère

bigger?

plus grande?

cleaner?

plus propre ?

 

Ok, I will take it.

Ok, je la prends.

 

I will stay for three nights

Je compte rester pendant trois jours.

 

Do you have a safe?

Avez-vous un coffer-fort?

 

What time is breakfast/supper?

A quelle heure est le petit-déjeuner/souper.

 

Do you have a safe ?

Avez-vous un coffer-fort?

 

Please clean my room.

Veuillez nettoyer ma chambre.

 

Can you wake me 8:00 o’clock?

Pouvez-vous me réveiller à 8 heures juste

 

I want to check out.

Je veux vous signaler mon départ.

 

I checked in three days ago.

J’ai intégré la chambre il y a trios jours.

 
 

 

HOW TO ASK FOR DIRECTIONS IN ENGLISH

 

 

 

Where is the….?

 

Où se trouve…?

 

the train station?                             La gare?

the city center ?                               Le centre-ville ?

the bus station ?                              La gare routière ?

the airport?                                     L’aéroport?

the suburbs?                                   La banlieue?

the Ghana Workers College?       L’Ecole des travailleurs du Ghana ?

 

 

 

 

Where are there a lot of…

Où y’a-t-il des..

 

hotels ?                    hôtels ?

restaurants ?           restaurants ?

bars ?                       bars ?      

 

 

THE POSSESSIVE CASE (La cas possessif)

 

The possessive case allows the establishment of possessive links between individuals and things, or parental links. It is made by the use of (s), or simply by the use of () in the case of regular plurals, but a particular attention should be given to the order which is not the same in the French language.

 

Le  cas possessif permet- entre autres – d’établir des liens de possession entre les personnes et objets, ou des liens de parenté. Il se marque par l’emploi de (s), ou simplement de () dans le cas des pluriels réguliers, mais il faut veiller à l’ordre des mots qui ne s’aligne pas sur le français.

 

 

e.g.         Peter’s uniform (l’uniforme de Peter)             The boysuniforms (Les uniformes des garcons)

 

             The boy’s uniform (L’uniforme du garcon)   The children’s uniforms (Les uniformes des enfants)

 

Dans ce dernier, exemple, children, bien que pluriel, ne prenant pas de (s), on gardera celui du cas possessif.

 

Attention !

 

Marius and marcel’s car isn’t a Rolls Royce!

 

  • Une seule voiture pour eux deux, un seul (s)

Brice’s and Dominique’s bikes are new.

 

  • Un vélo chacun, un (s) pour chacun.

 

       Le génitif peut être incomplet :

o        Si le 2e terme a déjà été mentionné.

 

e.g. This book isn’t mine, it’s Risey’s       Ce livre n’est pas à moi, il est à Risey

 

o        Si le 2e terme peut se déduire :

 

e.g.  I am going to the butcher’s                         (sous-entendu shop)

 

Je vais chez le boucher.

 

I spend my holiday at my grandparents (sous-entendu house)

Je passé mes vacances chez mes grands-parents

 

 

 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES (Les adjectifs et pronoms possessifs)

 

 

Possessive adjectives :

 

 My (Mon, ma, mes) 

Your (Ton, ta, tes)

 His (Son, sa,ses) 

 Her (Son, sa, ses)

 Its (Son, sa, ses) 

 Our (Notre, nos) 

Your(Votre, vos) 

Their (Leur, leurs)

 

His mother                   Sa mère

Her father                     Son père

 

 

 

 

Possessive pronouns : 

 

Mine (Le mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes)

Yours (Le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes)

His (Le sien, la sienne, les siens, les siennes)

Hers (Le sien, la sienne, les siens, les siennes)

Ours (Le notre, la notre, les notres),

Yours (Le votre, la votre, les vôtres)

Theirs (Le leur, la leur, les leurs)

 

e.g. Is this your sweater ?             No, it is not mine.          Non, ce n’est pas le mien/ il n’est pas à moi

 

 

IF/RESULT/CLAUSES

 

 

                     This structure shows the relationship of cause and effect between two ideas in the same sentence.

 

 

 

For example:

 

- If you don’t finish your food, your mother will punish you.

- Si tu ne finis pas ta nourriture, ta mère te punira.

 

 

Considering the fact that the separation of the two ideas is marked by a comma (,) it is easy to draw the following tables of the concordance of tenses.

 

1-      If + subject + present, subject + future

2-      If + subject + preterit, subject + conditional

3-      If + subject + pluperfect, subject + 3rd conditional

 

For example:

 

1-      If Marcel feeds his cat everyday, it will not catch mice.

-          Si Marcel nourrit son chat tous les jours, il n’attrapera pas les souris.

 

 

2-      If Risey did not attend the Ghana School of Translator, he would not work at EP &I.

 

-          Si Risey ne fréquentait pas l’Ecole des Traducteurs du Ghana, il ne travaillerait pas à Engineering Petroleum & Industries.

 

3-      If Jany had wanted divorce, she would have said it.

-          Si Jane avait voulu du divorce, elle l’aurait dit.

 

  

 

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

 

 

 

Let’s analyze the structure of sentences below and mark them right or wrong.

 

1-      Each of the employees have entered their office (wrong)

2-      Each of the employees has entered their office (right)

3-      Each of the boys has entered his bedroom(right)

 

4-      Everyone of us learn their lesson(wrong)

5-      Everyone of us learns their lesson (right)

 

6-      Neither of these translators teach in this institute of foreign languages.

7-      Neither of these translators teaches in this institute of foreign languages.

 

8-      The assistant director with all employees were away (wrong)

9-      The assistant director with all employees was away (right)

 

10-  Either your friend or I are stupid (wrong)
Either your friend or I is stupid (right)

 

 

CLASSWORK

 

Text:

 

 

Commerce is the exchange of items of value between persons or companies. Any exchange of money for a product, service, or information is considered a deal of commerce.

 

Commerce has been a constant part of history. In early times, people traded their excess goods with others for needed goods. So, for example, when a produce farmer had excess crop, he would trade with a neighbour who raised animals. This deal enabled them both to have meat and to produce to eat.

 

Before technological advances, people were only able to trade with their neighbours. As new methods of transportation developed, people were able to trade with people from distant places that they were previously unable to trade with.

 

The discovery of America resulted from an attempt to improve commerce. That is, it was a unplanned result of the Europeans attempt to find a more direct route to Asia to trade goods for Indian spices.

 

Historically, commerce between distant places was very expensive. Modern technology has not only greatly reduced the costs of foreign trade, but has also made foreign trade available between individuals. Both the internet and an efficient postal system have made international commerce convenient for businesses as well as individuals.

 

I-Comprehension:


a)-Answer the questions below
:

 

1-Give a suitable tilte to the text.

2-What is commerce?

3-What has made international commerce convenient for business and individuals?

4-Why were only people able to trade with their neighbours before technological advances?

5-What is the consequence of an attempt to improve commerce?

 

II- Grammar:

a)       Put the sentences below in the right tense:

1-The earth (To go) around the sun.

2-John(To have dealt) in spare parts for five years.

3- Doctor Paul (To read) the Bible everyday before starting work.

4-The assistant director of SUECO(To receive) just the instructions.

5-My mother (To prepare) rice every sunday.

 

III-Numbers

 

1-Write the operations below in full letters:

a) 1200 + 600 = 1800,   5,000 – 2500= 2500     12 x 2= 24,   600/2=300, 100 – 100= 0

2-Write the fractions below in full letters:

a)       ½, ¼, 2/4, 5/8 7/6

 

       Good luck!

 

Text: THE ROLE OF MIDDLEMEN IN BUSINESS

 

In a market economy, people create goods or services not only for daily consumption, but mainly for exchange. Once those goods and services are created, they need to be distributed so as to satisfy people’s needs. Between the producers and the financial consumers, the chain of distribution shows a large variety of roles played by different people who are in search of profit.

 

The first person who acts as a go-between in the distribution network of goods and services is the wholesaler. He renders services to both the retailer and the producer. Thanks to him the latter is relieved of the worry of selling to the final users because this would require more space, more time, more workers and more capital. He buys 200 kilos of sugar, 5 tons of cement, 1 lorry load of plantain from the producer. He then breaks down the bulk into reasonable sizes before selling them to the retailer, very often on credit. Although the wholesaler helps the manufacturer by clearing his factory, advertising his goods and informing him about the customer’s wants, there is a tendency to sell directly to the consumer through mail order and the factory warehouse. The retailer is supposed to serve as link between the wholesaler and the customers. When he buys in smaller quantities from the wholesaler, he obtains free delivery and a discount on the price. He lets the manufacturer and the customer know each other’s view on the goods: warming about the use, criticism on the quality…Retailers such as peddlers, hawkers and street traders have no shop, contrary to sole trader, partnership trade, supermarkets, chain stores…which are business in a specific shop, store or building.

 

In the world of business many other middlemen called agents are employed by principals. The former do business on behalf of the latter.

 

 

I-Answer the following questions on the text

1 -What do you think is the role of middlemen?

2 - There are some retailers who don’t display their articles in shops. Name three of them.

3 - How is referred to a kind of economy in which the first aim is to exchange and make profit?

4- What is a wholesaler?

5 – What is concerned with making a product known to the people and convince them to buy it in business?

 

II-Put the verb between brackets into the correct tense

1 –The personnel manager of SUECO (to go) to England two weeks ago.

2 -Had I known that he was a thief, I (would, wouldn’t have, could have) let him in.

3 - The television channel (to start) working since January 1 st 1998.

4 – Route Nationale n° 1 (to connect) Pointe-Noire with Brazzaville.

5 – If (to have) money, I will give you.

 

 

 

 

III-Join the following pairs so as to obtain meaningful sentences

 

1) To be competitive, traders must have very              a) machines have no brain, no feeling.

good quality

2) As the sole trader’s went bankrupt, he              b) relies on nothing but the personality

lost not only his business assets                                 of his borrower.

3) Modern advocates of office automation           c) and put a stress on advertisement.

Say that

4) Sales is the exchange of a product or service    d) both on the national and

                                                                                 International market for money 

5-We talk of personal guarantee when a lender       e) but also his own properties

 

IV-Translate the first paragraph of the text into French

 


Good luck!


Text : VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL

 

 

VoIP is a popular buzzword these days. It stands for voice over internet protocol, and it might just be the way you will be talking over the phone in the near future. Why so many people are excited by this technology? You avoid most of the costs that come with a traditional phone line, at least at this point of the game.

 

That is a savings of hundreds, or even thousands of dollars for some people. Most of the primary entities which are interested in this technology are large corporations, but it can be significant even for the homemaker.

 

Anyone who has used voice chat software is familiar with the latency issues that proliferate with any sort of data transfer involving the internet; VoIP addresses the latency issue using RTP, or Real Time Protocol. This protocol ensures that packets arrive in a timely manner. Voice over Internet Protocol features some additional advantages such as: you can talk to many people at once, ability to send other types of data other than voice such as files, innovations in data transfer and internet speeds come about, it can only get better.

 

There are a variety of devices that can take Voice over Internet Protocol calls. Some aren’t even hardware at all, but software programmes you can install on your computer.

 

The Voice Internet Protocol market is predicted to expand rapidly, with predicted numbers rising into the millions in just a few years. The installation procedure for the gadgets required to take these calls is often simple, and can be done with little hassle.

 

I-                   Answer the following questions on the text

1-      What does VoIP stand for?

2-      Why are so many people excited about this technology?

3-      What are the advantages of Voice over Internet Protocol?

4-      Some devices that take Voice over Internet Protocol aren’t hardware at all! What are they?

5-      What can be done with little hassle?

6-       

II-Put the verb between brackets into the correct tense

1 –The personnel manager of SUECO (to go) to England two weeks ago.

2 -Had I known that he was a thief, I (would, wouldn’t have, could have) let him in.

3 - The television channel (to start) working since January 1 st 1998.

4 – Route Nationale n° 1 (to connect) Pointe-Noire with Brazzaville.

5 – If (to have) money, I will give you.

 

 

 

 III-Join the following pairs so as to obtain meaningful sentences

 

1) To be competitive, traders must have very              a) machines have no brain, no feeling.

good quality

2) As the sole trader’s went bankrupt, he              b) relies on nothing but the personality

lost not only his business assets                                 of his borrower.

3) Modern advocates of office automation           c) and put a stress on advertisement.

Say that

4) Sales is the exchange of a product or service    d) both on the national and

                                                                                 International market for money 

5-We talk of personal guarantee when a lender       e) but also his own properties

 

IV- You are at the end of your training, write a letter of application to a company of your choice

 

                                                          Good luck!


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